Ratu Ulfiati


Low quality heavy oils and residues, which are subsequently obtained by processing heavy crudes, are considered as alternate suitable source for transportation fuels, energy and petrochemicals. ZSM-5 zeolite with high Si/Al ratio and modified with phosphorous and La has showed not only high selectivity to light olefins but also high hydrothermal stability for the steam catalytic cracking of naphtha. Kaolin is promising natural resource as raw material to synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite. The utilization of acid catalysts with large pore size or hierarchically structured and high hydrothermal stability to resist the severity of the steam catalytic cracking (or thermal and catalytic cracking) operation conditions to maximize the olefin production.


ZSM-5 Zeolite, Kaolin, Light Olefin, Steam Catalytic Cracking.

Full Text:



Amghizar, I., Vandewalle, L.A., Van Geem K.M., Marin, G.B., (2017), New trends in olefin production, Engineering, Volume 3, pp. 171178.

Ancheyta, J., Sanchez, S., Rodriguez, M.A., (2005), Kinetic modeling of hydrocracking of heavy oil fractions: A review, Catalyst Today, Volume 109, pp. 76-92.

Blasco, T., Corma, A., Martineztriguero, J., (2006), Hydrothermal stabilization of ZSM-5 catalytic-cracking additives by phosphorus addition, Journal Catalysis, Volume 237, pp. 267277.

Chen, N.Y., (1996), Shape selective catalysis in industrial applications, CRC press.

Corma, A., Corresa, E., Mathieu, Y., Sauvanaud, L., Al-Bogami, S., Al Ghrami M.S. and Bourane, A., (2017), Crude oil to chemicals: light olefins from crude oil, Catalysis Science & Technology, Volume 7, Nomor 1, pp. 12-46.

Corma, A, Mengual J., Miguel P.J., (2012), Stabilization of ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts for steam catalytic cracking of naphtha for production of propene and ethene, Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 421 422, pp.121 134.

Cundy, C.S., Cox, P.A., (2003), The hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites history and development from the earliest days to the present time, Chemical Reviews, Volume 103, pp. 663701.

Dey, P. K., Ghosh, S., Naskar, K. M., (2013), Organic template- free synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite particles using rice husk ash as silica source, Ceramics International, Volume 39, pp. 2153- 2157.

Faisal M. Alotaibi, Sergio Gonzalez-Cortes, Mohammed, F. Alotibi, Tiancun Xiao, Hamid Al-Megren, Guidong Yang, Peter P. Edwards, (2018) Enhancing the production of light olefins from heavy crude oils: Turning challenges into opportunities, Catalysis Today,

Fang, K.; Ren, J.; Sun, Y., (2005), Effect of nickel precursors on the performance of Ni/AlMCM-41 catalysts for n-dodecane hydroconversion, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, Volume 229, pp. 51-58.

Fang, K.; Wei, W.; Ren, J.; Sun, Y., (2004), n-Dodecane hydroconversion over Ni/AlMCM-41 catalysts, Catalysis Letters Volume 93, Nomor 3-4, pp. 235-242.

Gary, J. H., Handwerk, G. E., Kaiser, M. J., (2007) Petroleum Refining: Technology and Economy, 5th Ed., London, CRC Press.

Hartanto, D., Iqbal, R.M., Shahbihi, W.E., Santoso, E., Fansuri, H., Iryani, A., (2017), Effect of H2O/SiO2 molar ratio on direct synthesis of ZSM-5 from Bangkas kaolin without pretreatment, Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Volume 13, Nomor 4, pp. 817-820.

Hartanto, D., Saputro, O., Utomo, W. P., Rosyidah, A.,Sugiarso, D., Ersam, T., Nur, H., Prasetyoko, D., (2016), Synthesis of ZSM-5 directly from kaolin without organic template: Part-1: Effect of crystallization time, Asian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 28, Nomor 1, pp. 211-215

Kovo, A. S., Hernandez, O., Holmes, S. M., (2009). Synthesis and characterization of zeolite Y and ZSM-5 from Nigerian Ahoko Kaolin using a novel, lower temperature, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Volume 19, Nomor 34, pp. 6207-6212

Li, D.; Li, F.; Ren, J.; Sun, Y., (2003), Rare earth-modified bifunctional Ni/HY catalysts. Applied Catalysis A: General, Volume 241, Nomor 1, pp. 15-24.

OPECs World Oil Outlook 2040 Edition 2017

Petushkov, A., Yoon, S., Larsen, C. S., (2011). Synthesis of hierarchical nanocrystalline ZSM-5 with controlled particle size and mesoporisity, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 1, Nomor 37, pp. 92-100.

Rana, M.S., Samano, V., Ancheyta, J., Diaz, J.A.I., (2007), A review of recent advances on process technologies for upgrading of heavy oils and residua, Fuel, Volume 86, pp. 1216-1231.

Ren, T., Patel, M., Blok, K., (2006), Olefins from conventional and heavy feedstocks: Energy use in steam cracking and alternative processes, Energy, Volume 31, pp. 425-451.

Sadrameli, S.M., (2015), Thermal/catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons for the production of olefins: A state-of-the-art review I: Thermal cracking review, Fuel, Volume 140, pp. 102115

Sadrameli, S.M., (2016), Thermal/catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons for the production of olefins: A state-of-the-art review II: Catalytic cracking review, Fuel, Volume 173, pp. 285297.

Wang, P., Shen, B., Shen, D., Peng, T., Gao, J. (2007), Synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite from expanded perlite/kaolin and its catalytic performance for FCC naphtha aromatization. Catalysis Communications, Volume 8, pp. 1452-1456.

Xue, T., Chen, T., Wang, Y.M., He, M.Y., (2012), Seed-induced synthesis of mesoporous ZSM-5 aggregates using tetrapropylammonium hydroxide as single template, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Volume 156, pp. 97-105.

Xue, T., Liu, H., Zhang, Y., Wu, H., Wu, P., He, M., (2017) Synthesis of ZSM-5 with hierarchical porosity: In-situ conversion of the mesoporous silica-alumina species to hierarchical zeolite, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, doi: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2017.01.021.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.