SHALE AS HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS

Adi Junira, Andy Setyo Wibowo

Abstract


Nowadays, shale plays a role as hydrocarbon producing rock. Due to its “unusual” properties as a reservoir, shale is classified as an unconventional reservoir. Among these properties are the relatively low permeability (0.1 mD or less) and the relatively low porosity (10% or less). The relatively low permeability had been the main obstacle to extracting the hydrocarbon held by shale in the past. Nevertheless, the technologies of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have proven to be effective in stimulating a liquid flow in low permeability reservoirs such as a shale layer which has encouraged the hydrocarbon exploration in the oil shale industry. This paper is intended to provide an overview of technologies implemented in the current oil shale reservoir along with their challenges summarized from available sources in a concise manner.

Keywords


shale reservoir; mechanical properties; hydraulic fracturing

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aditya Khanna and Andrei Kotousov. (2015) : Controlling the Height of Multiple Hydraulic Fractures in Layered Media, SPE paper 176017-PA, Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal.

Andrew P Bunger and Guanyi Lu. (2015) : Time- Dependent Initiation of Multiple Hydraulic Fractures in a Formation with Varying Stresses and Strength. SPE paper 171030-PA, Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 20, Issue 06, 185 - 196.

Eric C Bryant, Jongsoo Hwang, and Mukul M Sharma. (2015) : Arbitrary Fracture Propagation in Heterogeneous Poroelastic Formations using a Finite Volume-Based Cohesive Zone Model. SPE paper 173374 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Conference 2015, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 3 – 5 February.

Frac Focus, Hydraulic Fracturing: The Process, viewed 21 August 2015, from https://fracfocus.org/hydraulic- fracturing-how-it-works/hydraulic-fracturing-process.

Fuxiang Zhang, Kaibin Qiu, Xiangtong Yang, Jun Hao, Xuefang Yuan, Jeffrey Burghardt, Hongtao Liu, Jianyi Dong, and Fang Luo. (2015) : A Study of the Interaction Mechanism between Hydraulic Fractures and Natural Fractures in the KS Tight Gas Reservoir, SPE paper 174384-MS presented at the EUROPEC 2015, Madrid, Spain, 1 – 4 June.

Ikenna Okahialam, Mei Yang, Dnyaneshwar B Shinde, Vivek Sahai, Aura Araque-Martinez, and Rakesh Rai. (2015) : Completion Optimization Under Constraints - An Eagle Ford Shale Case Study, SPE paper 174057-MS presented at the Western Regional Meeting, Garden Grove, California, USA. 27 – 30 April.

Jay Sepehri, Mohamed Y Soliman, and Stephen M Morse. (2015) : Application of Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) to Simulate Hydraulic Fracture Propagation from Oriented Perforations, SPE paper 173342-MS presented at the Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA. 3 – 5 February.

J R Shaoul, A Ayush, J Park, and C J de Pater. (2015): The effect of Stress Sensitive Permeability of Post- Fracture Welltests in Tight Gas and Unconventional Reservoirs, SPE paper 174187 presented at the European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary, 3 – 5 June.

Junjing Zhang, D Zhu, and A D Hill. (2015) : Water- Induced Fracture Conductivity Damage in Shale Formations. SPE paper 173346-MS presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 3 – 5 February.

Kyongsu Kim, Sungkyu Ju, Jongchan Ahn, Hyundon Shin, Changhoon Shin, and Jonggeoun Choe. 2. Shale Gas Hydrocarbon Reservoir (Adi Junira and Andy Setyo Wibowo) (2015): Determination of Key Parameters and Hydraulic Fracture Design for Shale Gas Production, SPE paper 174187 presented at the 25th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Kona, Big Island, Hawaii, USA, 21 – 26 June.

Menglu Lin, Shengnan Chen, Wei Ding, Zhangxin Chen, and Jinze Xu. (2015) : Effect of Fracture Geometry on Well Production in Hydraulic-Fractured Tight Oil Reservoirs. SPE paper 167761-PA Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, Vol. 54, Issue 03, 183 – 194

R Mayer, R Taylor, and I Mahe. (2015), Bringing Geoscience into Shale Development. Paper OMC- 2015-356 presented at the 12th Offshore Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition, Ravenna, Italy, 25 – 27 March.

Stephen A Holditch. (2006) : “Tight Gas Sands”, SPE paper 103356-JPT, Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 58, Issue 06, 86 - 93.

T Jansen, D Zhu, and A D Hill. (2015) : The Effect of Rock Mechanical Properties on Fracture Conductivity for Shale Formations, SPE paper 174384-MS presented at the Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA. 3 – 5 February.

US Environmental Protection Agency, The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing, viewed 21 August 2015, from http://www2.epa.gov/hydraulicfracturing/process- hydraulic-fracturing.

Usman Ahmed. (2015) : Optimized Shale Resource Development: Transforming Unconventional to Conventional Technologies, Paper OMC-2015-221 presented at the Offshore Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition, Ravenna, Italy, 25 – 27 March

Xiangji Dou, Liao Xinwei, Zhao Tianyi, Chen Zhiming, Ren Weiyan, and Zhang Rui. (2015) : “Analysis on Traditional Reserve Estimation Methods in Stress-sensitive Gas Reservoir: Error Analysis and Modification”, SPE paper 178284-MS presented at the Nigerial Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Lagos, Nigeria, 4 – 6 August.

Xiangji Dou, Xinwei Liao, Tengfei Hou, Tianyi Zhao, Chen Zhiming, Weiyan Ren, and Rui Zhang. (2015) : Fracture Optimization for Multi-stage Fractured Horizontal Well with Time & Stress-sensitive Parameters. SPE paper 178286-MS presented at the Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Lagos, Nigeria, 4 – 6 August .

Xiaochun Jin, Subhash N Shah, and Jean-Claude Roegiers. (2015). “An Integrated Petrophysics and Geomechanics Approach for Fracability Evaluation in Shale Reservoirs”. SPE paper 168589-PA presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference 2014, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 3 – 5 February.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.29017/SCOG.39.2.104

DOI (PDF): https://doi.org/10.29017/SCOG.39.2.71-75

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.